Download Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental by Jason Shogren PDF

By Jason Shogren

Every determination approximately power includes its cost and cost.  the cost of fuel and the price of deciding to buy from international manufacturers; the cost of nuclear and hydroelectricity and the prices to our ecosystems; the cost of electrical energy from coal-fired vegetation and the price to the atmosphere.  Giving lifestyles to innovations, way of life adjustments, geopolitical shifts, and issues in-between, power economics is of excessive curiosity to Academia, businesses and Governments. 

For economists, strength economics is one in every of 3 subdisciplines which, taken jointly, compose an monetary method of the exploitation and maintenance of traditional resources:

  • energy economics, which specializes in energy-related topics comparable to renewable power, hydropower, nuclear strength, and the political economic climate of energy
  • resource economics, which covers matters in land and water use, equivalent to mining, fisheries, agriculture, and forests
  • environmental economics, which takes a broader view of average assets via monetary strategies resembling threat, valuation, legislation, and distribution

Although the 3 are heavily related, they usually are not usually awarded as an built-in whole. This Encyclopedia has performed simply that by way of unifying those fields into a high-quality and unique overview.

  • The purely reference paintings that codifies the relationships one of the 3 subdisciplines: power economics, source economics and environmental economics. knowing those relationships simply grew to become simpler!

  • Nobel Prize profitable Editor-in-Chief (joint recipient 2007 Peace Prize), Jason Shogren, has verified first-class staff paintings back, through coordinating and steering his Editorial Board to supply a cohesive paintings that courses the consumer seamlessly in the course of the various topics.

  • This paintings comprises in equivalent elements details from and approximately company, educational, and executive views and is meant to function a device for unifying and systematizing learn and research in company, universities, and government.

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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Energy, Natural Resource, and Environmental Economics

Example text

Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Weisbach D (2011) Instrument choice is instrument design. S. Energy Tax Policy, pp. 113–158. New York: Cambridge University Press. Weitzman M (1974) Prices vs. quantities. Review of Economic Studies 41: 477–491. World Trade Organization and United Nations Environment Programme (2009) Trade and Climate Change, in WTO-UNEP. Geneva: WTO Publications. ca – British Columbia Ministry of Finance (accessed 14 April 2011). fi – Finland Ministry of the Environment (accessed 14 April 2011).

As a result, imposing the tax at the refinery level on petroleum products will be far less expensive than, say, trying to monitor emissions at the tailpipe. Similar principles apply to other fossil fuels. The key is to find a place between extraction and consumption where it is easiest to tax all or almost all of a fuel. Arguments for downstream imposition of the tax tend to be based on a claim that downstream tax is more visible than an upstream tax and, therefore, a downstream tax will have a greater effect.

1 billion) annually. British Columbia passed a carbon tax in 2008 that applies to fossil fuels purchased or used in the Canadian province. It began at a level of C$10 per ton CO2 with annual increases of C$5 per ton per year planned until it reaches C$30 in 2012. The rate on July 1, 2010 was C$20 per ton CO2. The tax collects roughly C$500 million annually with revenues earmarked for personal and business income tax reductions along with assorted other tax reductions. 50 per ton of CO2. 2 billion Green Fund.

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