By Saliha Belmessous
So much histories of ecu appropriation of indigenous territories have, until eventually lately, serious about conquest and profession, whereas quite little realization has been paid to the historical past of treaty-making. but treaties have been additionally a method of extending empire. to know the level of eu criminal engagement with indigenous peoples, Empire through Treaty: Negotiating ecu enlargement, 1600-1900 seems on the heritage of treaty-making in eu empires (Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, French and British) from the early seventeenth to the overdue nineteenth century, that's, in the course of either phases of eu imperialism. whereas students have usually pushed aside treaties assuming that they might were fraudulent or unequal, this ebook argues that there has been extra to the perform of treaty-making than mere advertisement and political opportunism. certainly, treaty-making was once additionally promoted via Europeans as a extra valid technique of appropriating indigenous sovereignties and buying land than have been conquest or career, and for that reason so as to reconcile growth with ethical and juridical legitimacy. As for indigenous peoples, they engaged in treaty-making which will additional their pursuits no matter if, as a rule, they won some distance lower than the Europeans from these agreements and infrequently lower than they bargained for. The vexed historical past of treaty-making provides specific demanding situations for the nice expectancies put in treaties for the solution of conflicts over indigenous rights in post-colonial societies. those hopes are held through either indigenous peoples and representatives of the post-colonial nation and but, either needs to come to phrases with the complicated and background of treaty-making over three hundred years of empire. Empire via Treaty seems to be at treaty-making in Dutch colonial growth, the Spanish-Portuguese border within the Americas, aboriginal land in Canada, French colonial West Africa, and British India.
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Additional info for Empire by Treaty: Negotiating European Expansion, 1600-1900
Especially in the case of faraway peoples with a different religion, treaty making should be avoided, Erasmus concluded: Certain nations are so different from one another in every way that it would be advisable to refrain from any contact rather than be linked to them even by the 9 See Gelderen, “The Low Countries,” 380–84. 11 Peace was the watchword of Erasmus’s thinking, the central protagonist in his Querela pacis, published shortly after in 1517. 12 A wholly different appraisal of Roman imperialism, warfare, and the use of treaties arises from the writings of Erasmus’s most famous contemporary, Machiavelli.
See the analysis in Ittersum, Profit and Principle, 432–33. ” See also 128–29. , Coen, “Discoers” (1614), in Colenbrander, Jan Pietersz. Coen. ” 56 Somers, “De VOC als volkenrechtelijke actor,” 168. Compare Corpus diplomaticum, 1: 160–61. ” 58 See Gerrit Knaap, “De Ambonse eilanden tussen twee mogendheden: De VOC en Ternate, 1605–1656,” in Locher-Scholten and Rietbergen, Hof en handel, 35–58. 59 Corpus diplomaticum, 1: 170–72, 176–79, 209–10, 220, 227. 60 Yet when Kakiali proved to be less subservient to the Dutch than expected and when VOC authority was undermined from all sides,61 Kakiali was characterized as a “faithless contract-breaker” and killed.
This treaty with the sultanate of Johor stipulated mutual military assistance, which within a few months led to the Dutch takeover of Malacca. Significantly a Johorese source from the end of the seventeenth century, the Hikayat Hang Tuah, presented the treaty as a case of indigenous superiority over the Dutch, who apparently were impotent without local support. According to this source, the sultan of Johor gave much relevance to the treaty, ordering it “to be kept in a safe place, and he had gold wrought and hammered into a thin foil by way of paper.