By Arijit Saha
This text/reference presents scholars and working towards engineers with an advent to the classical tools of designing electric circuits, yet contains smooth good judgment layout recommendations utilized in the newest microprocessors, microcontrollers, microcomputers, and diverse LSI parts. The e-book presents a evaluation of the classical equipment e.g., the elemental innovations of Boolean algebra, combinational common sense and sequential good judgment tactics, prior to conducting the sensible layout strategy and using computer-aided instruments. The publication is enriched with quite a few examples (and their solutions), over 500 illustrations, and encompasses a CD-ROM with simulations, extra figures, and 3rd celebration software program to demonstrate the strategies mentioned within the publication. positive factors * Designed as a text/reference to supply scholars and working towards engineers with info on either classical tools and smooth purposes * sleek functions are mentioned intimately, together with Karnaugh maps, PLD notation (PAL, PLA, FPGA) and extra * Covers basic issues as Boolean algebra, common sense gates, flip-flops, minimization, and so forth. * CD-ROM comprises simulations, figures, and third-party software program short desk OF CONTENTS 1. information & quantity platforms. 2. Codes and Conversions. three. Boolean Algebra & good judgment Gates. four. Simplification of Boolean capabilities. five. Combinational common sense Circuits. 6. Programmable good judgment units. 7. Sequential common sense Circuits. eight. Registries. nine. Counters. 10. A/D and D/A Conversion. eleven. good judgment households. Appendix. word list. in regards to the CD-ROM. Index.
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Additional resources for Digital Principles and Logic Design
For example, (35)10 is represented as 0011 0101 using BCD code, rather than (100011)2. From the example it is clear that it requires more number of bits to code a decimal number using BCD code than using the straight binary code. However, inspite of this disadvantage it is convenient to use BCD code for input and output operations in digital systems. The code is also known as 8-4-2-1 code. This is because 8, 4, 2, and 1 are the weights of the four bits of the BCD code. The weight of the LSB is 20 or 1, that of the next higher order bit is 21 or 2, that of the next higher order bit is 22 or 4, and that of the MSB is 23 or 8.
METHOD 1. In order to subtract any number from another number we have to add the 9’s complement of the subtrahend to the minuend. We can use the 10’s complement also to perform the subtraction operation. 53. Carry out BCD subtraction for (893) – (478) using 9’s complement method. Solution. 9’s complement of 478 is 999 – 478 521 Direct method 893 – 478 415 Now in BCD form we may write 1000 1001 0011 + 0101 0010 0001 1101 1011 0100 Left and middle groups are invalid + 0110 0110 1 Add 6 0100 0001 0100 1 End around carry 0100 0001 0101 Hence, the ﬁnal result is (0100 0001 0101)2 or (415)10.
Now the Hamming distance dij between the two vectors Ai and Aj is deﬁned by the number of 40 DIGITAL PRINCIPLES AND LOGIC DESIGN components in which they differ. Assuming that dij is determined for each pair of code words, the minimum value of dij is called the minimum Hamming distance, dmin. For example, Ai 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 Aj 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 Here, these code words differ in the MSB and in the third and sixth bit positions from the left. Hence, dij is 3. From Hamming’s analysis of code distances, some important properties have been derived: (i) For detection of a single error dmin should be at least two.