By Katharina Mewes
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Additional info for Decentralization on the Example of the Yemeni Water Sector: Did Decentralization from 2000 to 2009 Improve the Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Yemen?
Decentralization Concept From the beginning of development cooperation, decentralization was controversially discussed as a means for democratization and economic development. As a result, the institutional framework of the state reemerged into the research interests of development aid and development economies (Sauerland 1997: 15). Central points of this discourse and its historic political background are elaborated in the following section to illustrate the political relevance of the decentralization paradigm.
Vertical decentralization, which is the relevant form for this research paper, means the division or redistribution of political power between different govemmental or administrative levels. This redistribution might easily create conflicts between levels of governments, such as central ministries, govemorate, and district authorities. Faust et al. (2008: 30) remark that "some incoherence between these layers of govemment is unavoidable for a limited period of time. A permanently incoherent alloeation of responsibilities, resources, and legitimation between national and sub-national level" will, however, jeopardize the positive effects envisioned by decentralization processes.
ColIective-choice mies are rules that indirectly affect operational choices. e. the operational rules. ConstitutionaI-choice mies affect the operational activities and results because they determine who is eligible and what specific mies are used in crafting the set of colIective-choice mies that in turn affects the set of operational mies. Ostrom adds that operational rules are, further, influenced by formal and informal rules (Wegerich 2002: 20). Thus, to analyze decentralization processes, it is important to review how powers of decision-making are transferred.