By Alton J. Mathie
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Extra resources for Chemical treatment for cooling water
Calcium phosphate, like calcium carbonate, becomes less soluble at higher pH and temperature. The application of traditional water treatment is handled by "experts" because they get more technical about what they do each time research demonstrates how the elements interact. Page 18 Magnesium combines with silica to form scale. Silica, however, does not follow the normal combining pattern of either an anode or a cathode. There is much about silica that is still not well understood. The traditional water treatment industry has developed chemicals that can help decrease the amount of calcium based scale that will adhere to heat exchange surfaces, but they still have little other than control of the bleed to control the deposition of silica scale.
When both calcium carbonate and reverted phosphate, the "bad" kind, are present in large quantities, they combine to form a very sticky sludge that is hard to remove from heat exchange surfaces. It became the common recommendation when using phosphates for scale control to increase the rate of bleed according to the hardness of the make-up water. That is still the current recommendation made by most companies selling water treatment chemicals. An important part of the reason for high bleed is the efficiency of the chemical being used for scale control.
Chemical feed could be reasonably maintained provided the operator remembered to adjust the feed rates. Scale prevention could be accomplished as well, as long as the operator kept up with the bleed off setting. This dependency led to the next level of automation which was based on make up rates. Metered Makeup Based Control The first commercially available device used to fully automate a cooling tower were time based bleed and feed systems. This involved the installation of a contacting head water meter in the cooling tower make-up line.