By Walter Tape
Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.
Atmospheric halos are seen phenomena of a lot attractiveness and fascination. From our earliest recognized documents, courting from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to fashionable researchers, halos have stored us having a look skyward. as a result of mild refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could look at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals appear like, in particular those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the worth of the elusive perspective x, so serious to making a choice on the shapes of those crystals? What halo screens will we comprehend good and what monitors can we now not comprehend at all?
This e-book responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technological know-how. specialists and beginners alike will locate this booklet the definitive source at the topic. positive factors include:
- The "how to" in halo commentary and photography
- Carefully analyzed images of infrequent halo monitors and pyramidal ice crystals
- The early heritage of halo science
- Elegant new causes of ways halos form
- Authoritative dialogue of strange radius halos
We invite you to gaze up and detect the area of halos.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technology (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 extraordinary Radius Halos are genuine (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight strange Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the quest for attitude x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge perspective (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's consultant to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 bizarre Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen bizarre Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 extraordinary Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):
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Additional info for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X
W e are not historians of science and we are not competent t o say how it happened in reality, b u t we can at least muster t h e arguments for t h e t w o sides a n d t r y t o imagine how a Huygens vs. Mariotte d e b a t e might logically have played out, h a d it ever come t o pass. In doing so. we will be forced t o think about how we know what we know. Mariotte's calculation of ray paths for the 22° halo applies more properly to the parhelia (with the sun on the horizon) than to the 22° halo, since the paths that he considered all lay in a plane perpendicular to the crystal axis.
48. 68. 68. 1 At the time that Huygens began his halo studies, the angular radii of the 22° and 46° halos were not known accurately. 5° and 45°, so that the angular diameters had the appealing values of 45° and 90°. 68, from which he obtained the desired angular radii. 473. 3 C e l e s t i a l s p h e r e w i t h right opaque and left parhelia (PH) arising in H u y g e n s ' cylindrical core. T h e sky w a s s u p p o s e d to cylinders. Here the sun and the parhelia are be full of such cylinders, all falling w i t h their on the horizon.
There the two red segments are the "rotated parhelia" made by t h e ray p a t h s 3 5 and 3 7 as the crystal spins about its axis. 2 PH Circumzenith arc CZ 13 Circumhorizon arc CH 32 Parhelic circle PHC 3, 1 3 2 Left and right 120° parhelia 120 PH 1342,1382 All-sky simulations s h o w i n g plate arcs from prismatic crystals. T h e c r y s t a l s are s h a p e d like t h e o n e s h o w n . Sun elevations I = 20°, 60°. T h e table gives c o m m o n ray paths for the halos. 3 HALOS The four horizontal circles C C , i ; 2 C , C (heavy segments) of the celestial sphere 3 4 w h e r e plate arcs from prismatic crystals can occur.