By Toshi H. Arimura
Focusing on pollution, power potency and weather switch, this ebook offers an creation to Japan’s environmental rules and laws, and gives fiscal analyses and RIAs (Regulatory influence research) of environmental rules applied or deliberate via the nationwide and native governments. the hole bankruptcy experiences environmental economics and descriptions the present prestige of RIAs in Japan. bankruptcy 2 analyzes the NOx-PM Act, which prohibits using previous and polluting automobiles in metropolitan components. bankruptcy three examines a Tokyo metropolitan executive rules which calls for set up of pollutants keep watch over apparatus in older vans that fail to fulfill emission criteria. bankruptcy four strains the impression of the NOx-PM Act at the used vehicle industry and used motor vehicle exports. bankruptcy five offers an monetary research of a road toll relief, revealing an unforeseen adverse social influence: it elevated traffic jam and linked environmental difficulties. the ultimate 3 chapters handle regulations and laws on the topic of power potency and weather swap bankruptcy 6 evaluates the effectiveness of Japan’s power Conservation Act, initially brought in 1979 and amended a number of occasions to handle weather swap. bankruptcy 7 anticipates the influence of a proposed economy-wide carbon tax, utilizing input-output research to evaluate non permanent monetary affects in each one quarter. additionally offered here's an exam of the effectiveness of a discounted carbon tax for energy-intensive industries, with a dialogue of the impression of the concept on families. the ultimate bankruptcy discusses the position and boundaries of financial types for comparing Japan’s mid-term GHG (Greenhouse gasoline) emission objective through the post-Kyoto interval. this can be the 1st publication to judge eastern environmental rules from an monetary point of view, utilizing a number of present quantitative techniques. Its findings and proposals will gain scholars, coverage makers and govt officers in constructing and constructed international locations the place the general public faces related environmental problems.
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Additional resources for An Evaluation of Japanese Environmental Regulations: Quantitative Approaches from Environmental Economics
We refer to the term “highest benefit” when using the upper bounds of both NOx and PM, “medium benefit” when using the median estimates, and “lowest benefit” when using the lower bounds. 6 Cost-Benefit Analysis To compare the total costs and benefits of the VTR, we converted them into monetary values. 6 presents the results. 2 billion yen using the median estimate. 2 billion yen, was obtained by subtracting the total cost from the total benefit. Next, we present the results of the sensitivity analysis.
In Japan, a series of debates was held with regard to post-Kyoto negotiations on climate change policies. Upon facing the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto protocol (2008– 2012), the Japanese government initiated discussion regarding mid-term GHG emission target levels after the second commitment period (2013–2020). For policymakers, it is particularly important to predict what effects the emission target might have on the Japanese economy. Various economic models have been used to analyze the impacts of differing emission targets.
The result also indicates the need to reconsider the efficiency of the VTR, particularly with regard to passenger vehicles that were initially registered in 1990; it is problematic that more than one yen is required to reduce the externalities generated by passenger vehicles by one yen. 2 Simulation of Improved Efficiency18 In the previous section, we showed that the MAC differs across polluters and that the efficiency of the VTR can be improved by changing the current terminal years. We then solved an optimization problem to maximize the net benefit by using the total cost denoted in Eq.