By Eric Christiansen
The 'Northern Crusades', encouraged by means of the Pope's demand a Holy battle, are much less celebrated than these within the heart East, yet they have been additionally extra winning: immense new territories grew to become and stay Christian, akin to Finland, Estonia and Prussia. Newly revised within the gentle of the new advancements in Baltic and northern medieval learn, this authoritative evaluate presents a balanced and compelling account of a tumultuous period.
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The overdue medieval Church obliged all Christians to rebuke the sins of others, specifically those that had energy to self-discipline in Church and nation: monks, confessors, bishops, judges, the Pope. this custom, within which the injured occasion needed to confront the wrong-doer without delay and privately, was once often called fraternal correction.
In the course of a life of scholarship and educating, Hans-Martin Schenke produced quite a few courses within the fields of recent testomony, Gnosticism, and Coptology. This number of his essays and booklet experiences bears witness to his love for the linguistic facets of Coptology and illustrates his wide-ranging curiosity within the improvement of early Christianity.
The 'Northern Crusades', encouraged through the Pope's demand a Holy conflict, are much less celebrated than these within the heart East, yet they have been additionally extra profitable: mammoth new territories turned and stay Christian, comparable to Finland, Estonia and Prussia. Newly revised within the gentle of the hot advancements in Baltic and northern medieval study, this authoritative evaluation offers a balanced and compelling account of a tumultuous period.
Encouraged through a sequence of visions, Francisca de los Apóstoles (1539-after 1578) and her sister Isabella tried in 1573 to arrange a beaterio, a lay neighborhood of pious girls dedicated to the non secular existence, to provide prayers and penance for the reparation of human sin, in particular these of corrupt clerics.
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Additional info for The Northern Crusades: Second Edition
Feuchtwangen (1309–11)Gerhard v. Jocke (1309–22)Carl v. Trier (1311–24)Johannes Ungenade (1322–3)Werener v. )Duke Luder of Brunswick (1331–5)Eberhard Monheim (1328–40)Dietrich v. Altenburg (1335–41)Burchard v. Dreileben (1340–45)Ludolf König (1342–5)Goswin v. Hercke (1345–60)Heinrich Dusmer (1345–51)Arnold v. Vietinghof (1360–64)Winrich v. Kniprode (1352–82)Wilhelm v. Vrimersheim (1364–85)Conrad Zöllner v. Rothenstein (1382–90)Robin v. Eltz (1385–8)GRAND-MASTERS AT MARIENBURG (continued)MASTERS OF LIVONIA (continued)Conrad v.
6 South of these marshes, and south of the barren highlands of Outer Pomerania, stretches a belt of sandy forest and heathland, also interspersed with lakes and bogs, leached, acid and intractable. It runs from the North Sea to the Vistula, and baffled the cultivator until modern times. The missionary Otto of Bamberg crossed it on his way to the coast in 1124 and 1127. On the first occasion, going from Poznan to Pyrzyce, his disciple Herbord claimed that. the route is as hard to describe as it was to follow.
They were reckoned in notional totals of shillings, or öres, and marks, so that a Danish mark was made up of 8 öres or 240 pennies; a Prussian mark, of 24 scot or 720 pennies; a Riga mark of 36 shillings or 48 öre or 432 pennies. The Lübeck mark of 16 shillings or 192 pennies might equal 3 to 4 shillings sterling c. 1300. But there were also real weights of silver: up to c. 1300 the Gotland mark was predominant and later the mark of Cologne (8¼ oz: 234 g). From 1340 Lübeck minted a gold florin or gulden worth half a silver mark and upwards, which competed with the gold Hungarian ducat thereafter, while the new silver groat of Prague passed at 60 to the Cologne mark.