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By Konstantin O. Papailiou (eds.)

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7 Insulators, Hardware and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Conductor Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Vibration Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Warning Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Conductor Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 As-Built Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Needs . . . . . .

This goes hand in hand with the extensive coverage of repair methods and the related hardware, also covered in this chapter. Conductor vibrations have plagued transmission line engineers since the early days of overhead line transmission. In particular when the copper conductors originally used started being replaced in the twenties, because of economic considerations, by ACSR (Aluminium Conductors Steel Reinforced), vibration damages have been so heavy, that the use of the latter has been seriously questioned.

Aluminium based conductors 3. Pure aluminium individual wires 4. Aluminium alloy individual wires 180 N/mm2 140 120 100 4 80 60 3 σa 40 30 1 20 2 10 104 105 106 107 N 108 20 18 #1: Special Application Zone 16 #2: without any obstruction, summer time. 14 #3: open grass of farmland with few trees, hedgerows and other barriers; pririe, tundra. g. 12 Recommended safe design tension for single aluminium based conductors. O. 13 Coordination between Corona and power arc protection: correct (left), incorrect (right).

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