By P. Lloyd-Sherlock
Many nations within the constructing global are dealing with a fast acceleration in inhabitants getting old. to this point, this challenge has generated little curiosity both from teachers or policy-makers. reviews which concentration solely on social defense are of little relevance for almost all of aged in those areas, for whom the probabilities of saving or making pension contributions are distant. This ebook takes a extra entire procedure, combining research of social protection matters in all constructing international locations with micro-level case stories of negative city aged survival suggestions in Buenos Aires.
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Extra resources for Old Age and Urban Poverty in the Developing World: The Shanty Towns of Buenos Aires
23 Studies have examined a range of issues, such as the role of women, kinship networks, employment strategies and nutrition. However, very few of these make specific or even passing reference to the welfare of the elderly. This reflects the fact that rapid demographic ageing is yet to occur in most of the developing world. 25 One central concern of sociological research is the extent to which economic relationships between the elderly and other household members may been affected by recent socio-economic change.
Whilst this assumption may be reasonably valid in many developed countries, it clearly does not hold for poorer parts of the world. 9 per cent of those aged 65 or more were defined as economically active in 1990. The lowest rates of recorded activity were in Latin America, reflecting the greater presence of social security programmes in this region. In fact, these ILO figures probably underestimate the true extent of elderly employment. Given the low qualitative and quantitative coverage of formal pension schemes in developing countries, it is only to be expected that many elderly will seek additional forms of income.
The Argentina of the 1930s and 1940s had a large middle class, universal education and a rapidly expanding welfare system. By the 1990s, the country's fortunes had shifted dramatically. For the 50 years preceding 1930 the gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average annual rate of around 5 per cent a year (Diaz Alejandro 1970:3). 1 Decades of economic underperformance had reduced Argentina to the status of 'just another middle income developing country'. Per capita wealth was by now close to or even below that of several other Latin American countries.