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By Matthew W Stolper

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Additional info for Entrepreneurs and Empire: The Murašû Archive, the Murašû Firm, and Persian Rule in Babylonia

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14 n. Sand p. 106, see Stolper, JCS 28 (1976), 192-196. Ni S2S. 106. Babylonian dates are cited here in the form: day (Arabic numerals)/month (Roman numerals)/year (Arabic numerals) ruler's name. Months VP and XIP are intecalary seventh and thirteenth months, respectively, of thirteen-month years. Acc. d. "' no (preserved) date. Conversion from Babylonian to Julian dates follows Parker and Dubberstein, Chronology. 3, 8, 31, 43, SO, 61. Ni SOO (14/1/26 Artaxerxes I). 48 (-/-/19 Artaxerxes I), in which his name is probably to be restored.

They provide unparalleled information on the holdings of Persian nobles and their subordinates. In particular, they deal with affairs of Arsam (Arsames), the Achaemenid satrap of Egypt, who figures not only in Elephantine papyri, but in Murasu texts as well. The Arsam letters have had the benefit of recent critical re-edition 64 . M. Bigwood, "Ctesias of Cnidus'', Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 10 (1965), 263-265; Cook, The Persian Empire, 21 f. 61 Some commentators caution that defects in Ctesias may not be original, but faults of epitomizers and translators, while some parts of Ctesias's preserved work are credible.

Stale documents were discarded. As a result, earlier years are attested by comparatively few texts. The preserved contents of the Archive form a frozen image of the firm's later years, including older records which remained useful for the documentation of still outstanding claims. ). C. C. (BE 9 1; BE 10 130-132; PBS 2/1 144-148). They are an anomalous group, seemingly epiphenomenal to the firm's history. Their contents are distinctive: unlike the bulk of the Murasu texts, they do not deal with encumbrances on land or with factors of cultivation; instead, they record leases of large herds of sheep and goats.

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