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By Luc Boltanski

Au tournant des XIXe et XXe siècles, on notice journey à journey le développement du roman policier, dont le cœur est l'enquête, et du roman d'espionnage, qui a pour sujet le complot ; l'invention, par l. a. psychiatrie, de los angeles paranoïa, dont l'un des symptômes est l. a. tendance à entreprendre des enquêtes prolongées jusqu'au délire ; l. a. création par los angeles sociologie de formes spécifiques de causalité – dites sociales –, pour déterminer les entités, individuelles ou collectives, auxquelles peuvent être attribués les événements qui ponctuent los angeles vie des personnes, celle des groupes, ou encore le cours de l'histoire ; enfin, l'orientation nouvelle de los angeles technological know-how politique qui, se saisissant de los angeles problématique de los angeles paranoïa, los angeles déplace du plan psychique au plan social et prend pour objet l'explication des événemenst historiques par les 'théories du complot'.

Dans chacun de ces cas, los angeles réalité sociale est mise en doute. C'est à l'État-nation, tel qu'il se développe à los angeles fin du XIXe siècle, que l'on doit le projet d'organiser et d'unifier cette réalité pour une inhabitants et sur un territoire. Mais ce projet, proprement démiurgiques, se heurte à une pluralité d'obstacles parmi lesquels les développements du capitalisme, qui se joue des frontières nationales, occupe une position centrale.

Ainsi, los angeles determine du complot focalise des soupçons qui concernent l'exercice du pouvoir : où se trouve réellement le pouvoir et qui le détient, en réalité? Les autorités étatiques, qui sont censées en assumer los angeles cost, ou d'autres circumstances, agissant dans l'ombre – banquiers, anarchistes, sociétés secrètes, classe dominante, etc.? Ainsi s'échafaudent des ontologies politiques qui tablent sur une réalité doublement distribuée : à une réalité officielle, mais de floor et sans doute illusoire, s'oppose une réalité profonde, cachée, menaçante, officieuse, mais bien plus réelle. Roman policier et roman d'espionnage, paranoïa et sociologie – innovations à peu près concomittantes – sont solidaires d'une façon nouvelle de problématiser los angeles réalité et de travailler les contradictions qui l'habitent. Les aventures du conflit entre ces deux réalités – réalité de floor contre réalité réelle – constituent le fil directeur de l'ouvrage.

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Additional resources for Énigmes et complots. Une enquête à propos d'enquêtes

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An Argument from Utility What has so far been said about reason and reasoning has no transcendent implications. Human beings are being seen as creatures of nature, with certain naturally and culturally given dispositions and beliefs. Deeply embedded beliefs and practices—about the external world, about induction, about the imperative need an individual has to sur4 B. Pascal, Pensees, trans. A. J. Krailsheimer (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1966), no. 188. Dimensions of Reason 21 vive and to protect his or her young—can plausibly be seen as having been embedded because they have promoted the survival of individuals who held them, and indirectly of the species as a whole.

In the Politics (1253a7-17), Aristotle speaks of the real difference between man and animals being the perception on the part of humans of good and evil and of the just and the unjust. He connects this to the sharing of a common view on such matters (which is what constitutes a household or a state), and on the possession by humans of speech (logos) as opposed to mere voice or expression. In terms of the distinction I am drawing, Aristotle's common view will be the reasonable, the content of reason.

As self-conscious I do not 24 Dimensions of Reason simply have pleasures, pains, experiences, and needs and react to them: I am also aware that I have them, that there is an T which is a subject of these experiences and which is a possessor of needs, experiences, beliefs, and dispositions. In being or becoming aware of experiences, dispositions, and beliefs as mine, I am at the same time aware that there is or might be something which is not me or mine, something which my experiences and beliefs are of, something towards which my dispositions are directed.

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