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By Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew

This publication provides an alternate paradigm in realizing and appreciating global Englishes (WEs) within the wake of globalization and its accompanying transferring priorities in lots of dimensions of recent lifestyles, together with the emergence of the English language because the dominant lingua franca (ELF). chunk argues that historical past is a theatre for the belief of lingua francas, offering a version that exhibits the current as derived from the prior and as a bearer of destiny probability, the certainty of that's rooted within the knowing of worldwide Englishes and ELF. The booklet will interact with the various present theoretical debates in WEs and comprises, as a way of fleshing out the version, sociolinguistic case reports of Arabia, China Fujian, and Singapore.

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15 Conversely, linguistic changes, such as mergers and simplification, that make it easy for the nonnative speaker and that are commonly found in lingua francas, are more likely to be found in large societies characterized by high contact (Dunbar 2003). Evolution is the explanatory principle that connects all biological phenomena, including cultures, into a seamless whole (Ehrlich 2000). However, to understand language change well is to reopen the topic on linguistic evolution, which has, since the rise of Nazism and Fascism and their emphasis on the superiority of certain languages and races, been a sensitive one.

Language change,” rather than “evolution” and “progress,” is the preferred term. But we should not be afraid of “progress” because biological evolution is incredibly slow to the human eye so that it is very difficult or impossible to detect in a short period. Also “progress” is very difficult to defi ne and measure and is likely to be found only in the very long term. On the other hand, it would be very strange if there were no important progress in communication in the last million years of human evolution, since the time in which there lived ancestors common to modern humans and our nearest cousins, the chimpanzees.

However, the nation-state, and its ideological partner, nationalism, has shown its dark side—its capacity for divisions, destabilization, and destruction through the many wars that have been fought in its name. Just like all previous world orders before it, namely, the family, the tribe, the city-state, the nation-state is currently contending with another cosmological parameter—globalism–a buzzword that has come into frequent use since the 1990s. Since the dawn of the 2lst century, a new defining character for the world—a “new world order,” so to speak, based not on empty rhetoric but on the recognition of the interdependence of nation-states in the world today and an acknowledgement of shared world problems, such as poverty, illness, and environment degradation, is now center stage.

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