Download Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks by F. J. Soares, P. M. Rocha Almeida (auth.), Rodrigo PDF

By F. J. Soares, P. M. Rocha Almeida (auth.), Rodrigo Garcia-Valle, João A. Peças Lopes (eds.)

Electric motor vehicle Integration into smooth strength Networks offers insurance of the demanding situations and possibilities posed via the innovative integration of electrical force automobiles. beginning with a radical review of the present electrical motor vehicle and battery cutting-edge, this paintings describes dynamic software program instruments to evaluate the affects caused by the electrical automobiles deployment at the regular kingdom and dynamic operation of electrical energy grids, identifies concepts to mitigate them and the chance to aid at the same time large-scale integration of renewable power sources.

New enterprise types and keep an eye on administration architectures, in addition to the conversation infrastructure required to combine electrical automobiles as lively call for are provided. ultimately, regulatory problems with integrating electrical autos into glossy strength platforms are addressed.

Inspired by way of classes held lower than the EES-UETP umbrella in 2010 and 2011, this contributed quantity contains 9 chapters written by means of major researchers and execs from the in addition to academia.

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Although Li-ion cells have small self-discharge, small differences can accumulate over time, causing 2 Electric Vehicle Battery Technologies 47 Fig. 15 Comparison of the model parameter estimates and the true model parameters (a simulated battery system with parameters established from lab experiments by NREL) different SOCs even for cells with nearly identical capacities. Furthermore, variations in internal impedance and material aging inevitably lead to nonuniform cell characteristics. To protect the cells from overheat, overcharge, and overdischarge, the operation of the string is fundamentally limited by the weakest cell, the one reaches SOC upper and lower boundaries first.

In contrast, energy shuffling can reduce significantly the energy loss, but requires additional energy storage components such as capacitors (or inductors) together with their power electronics and control functions, shown in Fig. 17. These increase costs and sizes with more sophisticated management systems. 3. Voltage Balancing: Although the intention of cell balancing is justifiably to equalize SOCs, for run-time implementation accurate SOC estimation and capacity determination are difficult.

A nominal condition, for example, can be defined as 20 C and discharging at 1/20 C-rate. People also use Wh (or kWh) capacity to represent a battery capacity. 6) C-rate. C (nominal C-rate) is used to represent a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery in one hour. 6 A. 2 A. Specific Energy. Specific energy, also called gravimetric energy density, is used to define how much energy a battery can store per unit mass. 7) Specific energy of a battery is the key parameter for determining the total battery weight for a given mile range of EV.

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