By Paul Meara
What phrases come into your head in case you reflect on sunlight? For local English audio system, the most typical responses are MOON, SHINE and sizzling, and approximately half all local speaker responses to solar are lined through those 3 phrases. L2 English audio system are less obliging, and convey styles of organization which are markedly varied from these produced by means of local audio system. Why? What does this let us know in regards to the means L2 audio system' vocabularies develop and improve? This quantity presents a trouble-free advent to a examine method which has the capability to respond to a few long-standing puzzles approximately L2 vocabulary. the tactic is straightforward to exploit, even for green researchers, however it produces immensely wealthy info, which are analysed on many various degrees. The booklet explores how be aware organization facts can be utilized to probe the advance of vocabulary intensity, effective vocabulary talents and lexical business enterprise in L2 audio system.
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Extra info for Connected Words: Word associations and second language vocabulary acquisition (Language Learning & Language Teaching)
A typical profile generated by Lex 30 Subject A1 Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3+ 4 49 10 40 Results The results of the productive vocabulary test, Lex30, can be seen in Table 2. Not surprisingly, the number of structure words produced is low. Native speaker word association tests (Postman & Keppel, 1970; Kiss et al. 1973) also produce mostly content words. Most of the words produced by Subjects fall into Nation’s first thousand category (Nation, 1984). Analysis of the completed tests shows that the first response to a stimulus word was usually a frequent word; the second, third and fourth responses were more likely to be less frequent words.
The stability of learners’ responses in word association tasks is an important methodological question that has not been generally considered in the literature. Connected Words We know that native speakers’ associations are relatively stable: subjects tend to give the same responses to stimulus words, and this tendency is even more marked if we consider the responses of whole groups of subjects. This means that one can be reasonably confident that a single test is a reliable tool to use with native speakers, and that it is unlikely that a second test would produce wildly different response patterns.
For the learner group, “French responses” are marked with *. Responses marked $ were generated by subjects who claimed not to know the meaning of the stimulus word responses to PAIN Learner Responses N Native Spkr Responses N *beurre *manger *couteau, gâteau *eau, *lait, doigt, malade français, provisions, mal de mer, *grillé confort, margarine, docteur, *flutes, être, anxious, guerre, toucher, baguette yeux, pense, berre, porter, pape, bière, cou illegible no response $merci, $animaux, $tabac 28 4 3 2 1 vin (et vin) blanc, manger faim mie (de mie) dur 30 19 16 14 13 1 nourriture 12 1 sec 11 1 bis 9 1 2 2 1 quotidien boulanger beurre blé, farine amour, bon, frais, noir aliment, miche, sel, viande, boulangerie, brûlé, couteau croissant, croûte, cuisine, épice lait, main, pauvre, repas, sucre, table, travail, vie Amour et Fantaisie, Amour et Jalousie appétit, beau, besoin, brioche, céleste, chaud, chocolat, Christ, cidre, corbeille è couper, craque, déjeuner, Dieu, doré drôle, eau, fantaisie, film, flûte, four, fromage, gâteau, gourmand, goûter, grillé, grossir, guerre, habitude, homme, justice, labeur, long, mâcher, miettes, moralité, nécesaire, odeur, pain bis, pamplemousse, planche, prison, rassis régime, repos, sandwich, saveur, seigle, sueur, tartine, tendre, trou, vivant 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (Continued) Chapter 1.