Download Cloud Optics by Alexander A. Kokhanovsky PDF

By Alexander A. Kokhanovsky

Clouds impact the weather of the Earth, and they're a big consider the elements. as a result, their radiative homes needs to be understood in nice aspect. This e-book summarizes present wisdom on cloud optical homes, for instance their skill to soak up, transmit, and replicate gentle, which will depend on the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical features corresponding to sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and constructions. furthermore, difficulties concerning the picture move via clouds and cloud distant sensing are addressed during this ebook in nice detail.

This e-book will be a major resource of knowledge on theoretical cloud optics for cloud physicists, meteorologists and optical engineers.

All simple principles of optics as concerning scattering of sunshine in clouds (e.g. Mie concept and radiative move) are thought of in a self constant approach. hence, the ebook is additionally an invaluable textbook to rookies to the field.

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Cloud Optics

Clouds have an effect on the weather of the Earth, and they're an immense consider the elements. accordingly, their radiative homes has to be understood in nice aspect. This publication summarizes present wisdom on cloud optical houses, for instance their skill to soak up, transmit, and mirror mild, which relies on the clouds’ geometrical and microphysical features comparable to sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and buildings.

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Note that f (D, L) can be approximately reduced to one-dimensional functions f (D) due to the existence of empirical relationships between the length of crystals and their diameter in natural clouds (Auer and Veal, 1970). 48 L otherwise. 474 at ζ ∈ [5 μm, 1500 μm]. Similar relationships can be obtained for other shapes (Mitchell and Arnott, 1994). 6. Meteorological classification of snow crystals (Magano and Lee, 1966). 6. Continued MICROPHYSICS AND GEOMETRY OF CLOUDS 23 It should be pointed out, however, that the whole concept of a single distribution function breaks down for ice clouds.

7. These data confirm that the most of particles in ice clouds are of irregular shape. Actually, the shape parameters are functions of temperature and height inside of a cloud (see Fig. 18). Also it follows from Fig. 18 that shapes are not evenly distributed in different size intervals. Generally, smaller particles are closer to the spherical shape assumption as compared to larger ones (see Fig. 18). Larger ice crystals are found at the bottom of a cloud. 3 Refractive Indices of Liquid Water and Ice The complex refractive index of particles suspended in the atmosphere is another important parameter in atmospheric optics studies (Liou, 2002).

Note that only real parts of these fields have the physical sense. , the product E × H means Re(E) × Re(H), where E and H can be substituted by their exponential forms given above. 9) simplify to the following relationships with account for exponential forms given above: ∇×E =− iω iεω H, ∇ × H = E. 13) where k = ω/c and we accounted for Eq. 10), the vector identity ∇ × ∇ × E = √ ∇ · (∇ · E) − E and introduced the refractive index m = ε (see Appendix A). Also we have: H + k 2 m 2 H = 0. 15) where is the scalar wave amplitude.

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