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Carcinoma of glandular epithelium. These malignant tumours arise from surface epithelium as well as from glands, and are known as adenocarcinomas. Their histological appearence is extremely variable. The well-differentiated types have a glandular pattern but the acini are irregular in shape and lined by more than one cell layer. In moderately differentiated types the cancer cells are arranged in clumps without a central lumen. In the breast and gastrointestinal tract a scirrhous type of adenocarcinoma, characterised by marked fibrosis in the stroma, may occur.

Exposure to chromium compounds, chiefly chromates and dichromates, is a recognised cause oflung cancer. The risk of contracting the disease is 15-30 times greater among chromate workers than in the general population. Among the commonest occupational cancers today are respiratory tract cancers from asbestos, the use of which has increased enormously over the past forty years. The inhalation of asbestos dust causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, asbestosis: an interstitial fibrosis marked by thickening of the pleura and the presence within the lung parenchyma of asbestos fibres with a coating of protein that contains iron (asbestos bodies).

6. Anatomy: Some tumours are named after the organ, and not the tissues, from which they arise. Examples of these are hepatoma, thymoma and carotid body tumours. The current and best classification of tumours is a combination of the histogenetic, histologiciJ. and behavioural classifications. It is made after microscopical examination of the tumour to identify the cell of origin and to assess the degree of differentiation and histological features of malignancy. A benign tumour of surface epithelium is called a papilloma, whereas one of glandular epithelium is an adenoma.

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