By Marc Morris
"Castle" is a wide-ranging background of a few of the main excellent structures in Britain. It explores a few of the country's most famed and best-loved castles, in addition to a few little-known nationwide treasures. the tale starts within the eleventh century, while castles have been brought to Britain, and results in the seventeenth century, once they have been mostly deserted. it truly is, in a few respects, an epic story, pushed by means of characters like William the Conqueror, "Bad" King John and Edward I, who, via construction and besieging castles, formed the destiny of the country. whilst, besides the fact that, it's a extra homely tale, in regards to the adventures, struggles and objectives of lesser-known contributors, and the way each element in their lives was once wrapped up within the castles they equipped. As Marc Morris exhibits, there's extra to castles than drawbridges and battlements, portcullises and arrow-loops. Be it ever so grand or ever so humble, a citadel is initially a house. it could possibly glance tricky and defensible at the outdoors, yet at the within, a citadel is all approximately luxurious and creature comforts. inside of actual castles, we do no inevitably locate cannons and fits of armour, yet we do notice nice halls, large kitchens, inner most chambers and chapels - all rooms which have been as soon as sumptuous and indulgent, and which made those constructions ideal apartments for his or her proprietors. to appreciate castles - who equipped them, who lived in them, and why - is to appreciate the forces that formed medieval Britain.
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Additional resources for Castle: A History of the Buildings that Shaped Medieval Britain
Many have sought to contrast primitive warfare with modern-day warfare. Primitive warfare operates on lower numbers, often involving individual Introduction 21 TOOA02 21 09/27/2004, 06:04PM Men Jivaro Qadan no. 117 Yanomami Oneota Mae Enga Dugum Dani Murngin Yanomami Huli Gebusi US and Europe 20th century Prehistoric populations “Ethnographic” populations Historic states Total population Qadan no. 117 Jivaro P. Rupert Yanomami All Qadan Mae Enga Oneota Dugum Dani Yanomami Northeastern Plains Vedbaek Huli Anggor Gebusi Téviec Central California Aztecs 15th century Skateholm France 19th century Western Europe 17th century 0 20 40 0 10 20 Men 60 80 100 30 40 50 Total population Figure 7 Percentage of men killed (above) and percentage of total population killed (below) in warfare across a range of societies.
Warfare: Nature or Culture? Violence and conflict are frequently discussed as though they are specific to the period from the Neolithic onwards. This perspective is based upon a more “materialistic” view of human behavior – it is only since the emergence of the first agricultural civilizations that humans have accumulated wealth and surpluses which have, in turn, led to greed and competition. Capitalization and signs of prosperity are certain to trigger feelings of greed in the less well off. It is, however, of greater interest to turn our attention to hunter-gatherer populations which tend not to amass supplies long term (except perhaps for the more civilized hunter-gatherer societies) and thus envy is less common.
In the East, such scenarios are known to have occurred thanks to texts from Mesopotamia dating from the third millennium bce; all indications are that the construction of towns from the end of the fourth millennium bce (Habuba Kabira, an Uruk settlement) created social settings in which frictions were a frequent feature, often resulting in prisoners being captured and perhaps even slavery. One further aspect of violence is ritual mutilation. As we have already seen, physical aggression can be masked as religious or social, even festive or playful behavior.