Download Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe by Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins PDF

By Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

Whilst taxes are brought on carbon and effort, and the profit is used to lessen different taxes, will a favorable impact be accomplished either for the surroundings and for the financial system? In 1990 Finland used to be the 1st nation to introduce a tax on CO2. Later, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Slovenia, Germany and the united kingdom swimsuit with tax reforms that shifted taxation from labour to carbon and effort. through the years, CO[{2} and effort taxes have progressively been raised, in order that in Europe taxes of greater than 25 billion Euros a 12 months were shifted. This ebook examines carbon-energy taxation intimately and appears at tax moving programmes for decreasing different taxes. It bargains broad research at the foundation of historic info and seeks to respond to very important questions for policy-making, corresponding to: What used to be the influence of tax transferring for fiscal functionality and competitiveness? by means of how a lot have been emissions of CO[{2} decreased? might energy-intensive industries reduce extra down on their gas call for or did they free industry stocks? To what quantity used to be there "leakage" from Europe, in order that creation and CO[{2} emissions have been shifted to different nations or areas with out CO[{2} -abatement coverage? using distinctive and unique facts, together with sector-specific power costs and taxes, in addition to using complicated statistical thoughts, comparable to co-integration research and panel-regression innovations in addition to the time-series predicted macro-economic version E3ME, make this a very finished quantity. at the foundation of the teachings realized in Europe, this quantity exhibits how carbon-energy taxation may possibly usefully be mixed with emissions buying and selling, and discusses implications for destiny overseas weather coverage, together with how the IPCC strategies for a steady escalation in carbon cost will be entire whereas fighting carbon leakage.

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22 Carbon-Energy Taxation and Competitiveness Smith, S. 2003. ‘Environmental taxes and competitiveness: an overview of issues, policy options and research needs’. COM/ENV/EPOC/DAFFE/CFA(2001)90/ FINAL. Paris: OECD. Thompson, G. 1998. ‘International competitiveness and globalization: frameworks for analysis, connections and critiques’, in T. Barker and J. ), International Competitiveness and Environmental Policies. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 13–32. , and Hitchens, D. 2005. ‘The impact of environmental regulation on competitiveness in the German manufacturing industry: a comparison with other countries of the European Union’.

The chapter identifies what appears to be a significant difference between the impacts of increased energy prices and increased carbon-energy taxes; whereas increases in energy prices influence unit energy costs, such impacts are considerably smaller for energy taxes. While the analysis does not provide support for a strong double dividend, it cannot confirm the existence of firmly negative economic impacts from ETR. Andersen and Speck in Chapter 6 review in detail the mitigation and compensation arrangements for energy-intensive industries in the seven countries.

In a landmark article, Berkeley economist Leibenstein (1966) proposes to distinguish what he terms ‘X-efficiency’ from traditional allocative efficiency. While allocative efficiency addresses the optimal combination of productive resources, X-efficiency addresses the optimal use of the individual factor of production. Leibenstein discusses whether labour is always used optimally, citing extensive evidence for productivity improvements achieved in the use of labour. The scope for such improvements would normally be assumed away by neoclassical theory’s assumption of optimality and rationality in the management of firms.

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