By Christian Marazzi
The Swiss-Italian economist Christian Marazzi is without doubt one of the center theorists of the Italian postfordist move, besides Antonio Negri, Paolo Virno, and Bifo (Franco Berardi). yet even supposing his paintings is frequently brought up through students (particularly by means of these within the box of "Cognitive Capitalism"), his writing hasn't ever seemed in English. This translation of his latest paintings, Capital and Language (published in Italian in 2002), ultimately makes Marazzi's paintings on hand to an English-speaking audience.
Capital and Language takes as its place to begin the truth that the intense volatility of economic markets is usually attributed to the discrepancy among the "real economy" (that of fabric items produced and bought) and the extra speculative monetary-financial economic climate. yet this contrast has lengthy ceased to use within the postfordist New economic climate, within which either spheres are structurally stricken by language and verbal exchange. In Capital and Language Marazzi argues that the adjustments in monetary markets and the transformation of work into immaterial hard work (that is, its reliance on summary wisdom, basic mind, and social cooperation) are only aspects of an analogous coin.
Capital and Language makes a speciality of the motives in the back of the foreign fiscal and fiscal melancholy of 2001, and at the basic software that the U.S. govt has seeing that been utilizing to stand them: warfare. Marazzi issues to capitalism’s fourth degree (after mercantilism, industrialism, and the postfordist end result of the hot Economy): the "War Economy" that's already upon us.
Marazzi bargains a thorough new realizing of the present foreign monetary level and an important post-Marxist advice for confronting capitalism in its most up-to-date shape. Capital and Language additionally offers a warning sign to a Left nonetheless nostalgic for a Fordist construct—a time ahead of manufacturing unit became workplace (and workplace into home), and ahead of exertions grew to become linguistic.
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Extra info for Capital and Language: From the New Economy to the War Economy
Working in networks problematizes the collective perception of the individual dimension of exploitation. The atom ization of work, its internal hierarchy, immigration, temp workers, workingpoor, are the social and identity vectors "played" against the class recomposition of the multiplicity of productive vectors. "Nev ertheless, " writes Marco Revelli, "this did not pur an end to the capacity for centralization and subj ugation (for private appropria tion) of the disseminated forces of production by some higher-up on the 'chain of value' : of the social power that governs the new dis seminated productive system.
Facts are created by spea/ling them. "It is well known that John L. Austin defines as performative such utterances as 'I take this woman to be my lawfully wedded wife,' 'I baptize this baby Luke,' 'I swear I'll come to Rome, ' 'I bet a thousand lire that Inter will win the championship,' etc. The speaker does not describe an action (a wedding, a baptism, an oath, a wager) , he does it. He does not speak about what he is doing, but he does something by speaking" (Virno, 200 1 ) . John Searle sees i n today's money a demonstration o f Austin's theory of performative utterances (Searle, 1 98 5, p.
Manual labor tends to be performed by machines commanded automatically, and innovative work, work which effectively produces value, is mental work. The material to be transformed is simulated by digital sequences. Productive work (work that produces value) consists in performing simulations which the computerized automatons then transfer onto the material" (Berardi, 2 00 1 , p. 5 0 ) . The individual's daily work a t the computer is abstract while the knowledge content that the digital work allows to be produced is concrete and specific: "Digitalized work manipulates absolutely abstract signs, but its recombinant operations are highly specific, highly personalized, and therefore less and less interchangeable.