By Qingyun Duan, Hoshin V. Gupta, Soroosh Sorooshian, Alain N. Rousseau, Richard Turcotte
Published by way of the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Water technology and alertness Series.
During the previous 4 a long time, computer-based mathematical versions of watershed hydrology were generic for numerous purposes together with hydrologic forecasting, hydrologic layout, and water assets administration. those types are in line with basic mathematical descriptions of the watershed tactics that rework average forcing (e.g., rainfall over the panorama) into reaction (e.g., runoff within the rivers). The person of a watershed hydrology version needs to specify the version parameters ahead of the version is ready to correctly simulate the watershed behavior.
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Additional info for Calibration of Watershed Models
A model structureis usuallya combination of differenthypotheses of the workingof thenaturalsystem. , 1993]. One,alreadymentioned,underlyingassumption of conceptual modellingis the consideration of modelparametersas constantin time, at leastaslongasfor exampleno changesin the watershedoccur that would alter the hydrological WAGENER ET AL. Different researchers ume]. Traditionalsingle-objectiveautomaticcalibration on the otherhandis fast andobjective,but will produce inadequacies in the functioningof the model.
Sorooshian, S. A. Dracup, 1980: Stochastic Parameter EstimationProceduresfor Hydrologic Rainfall-Runoff Models: Correlated and Heteroscedastic Error Cases, Water Resources Research, 16(2), 430-442. K. L. Fulton, 1983: Evaluationof Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimation Techniquesfor ConceptualRainfall-Runoff Models: Influence of Calibration Data, Variability and Length on Model Credibility, Water ResourcesResearch, 19(1), 251-259. , Q. K. Gupta, 1993: Calibration of Rainfall-RunoffModels:Applicationof Global Optimizationto the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model, Water ResourcesResearch, 29, 1185-1194.
A. C. Bales, 1999: Sensitivity Analysis Using Mass Flux and Concentration, HydrologicalProcesses,13(14-15), 2233-2244. C. W. H. S. Baron,2000:StreamChemistryModelingof TwoWatersheds in the FrontRange,Colorado,WaterResources Research, 36(1),77-87. , J. Schaake,D. Tarplay,E Chen,Y. Lin, M. Baldwin, E. Rogers,G. Manikin, A. Betts, Z. Janjic, Q. Duan, and V. Koren, 1999:RecentGCIP Advancements in CoupledLand-surface Modeling and Data Assimilationin the NCEP Mesoscale ETA Model, Preprints, AMS 14th Conference on Hydrology, Dallas, TX.