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By F. Kajzar, R. Reinisch

The sector of nonlinear optics, which has passed through a truly speedy improvement because the discovery of lasers within the early sixties, remains to be an energetic and swiftly constructing - seek quarter. The curiosity is especially a result of strength functions of nonlinear optics: - rectly in telecommunications for prime expense facts transmission, snapshot processing and popularity or in some way from the potential of acquiring huge wavelength variety tuneable lasers for functions in undefined, medication, biology, info garage and retrieval, and so on. New phenomena and fabrics proceed to seem on a regular basis, renewing the sphere. This has confirmed to be very true during the last 5 years. New fabrics corresponding to organics were constructed with very huge moment- and third-order nonlinear optical responses. Imp- tant advancements within the components of photorefractivity, all optical phenomena, frequency conv- sion and electro-optics were saw. In parallel, a few new phenomena were suggested, a few of them demanding the formerly held recommendations. for instance, solitons in keeping with second-order nonlinearities were saw in photorefractive fabrics and frequency doubling crystals, destroying the notion that 3rd order nonlinearities are - quired for his or her iteration and propagation. New methods of constructing and manipulating nonl- ear optical fabrics were constructed. An instance is the production of hugely nonlinear (second-order lively) polymers by means of static electrical box, photo-assisted or all-optical poling. Nonlinear optics comprises, via definition, the made of electromagnetic fields. As a con- quence, it results in the beam keep watch over.

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5,48,49 29 Cascading Effects When a fundamental beam generates a second harmonic signal in a χ (2) -active crystal under near phase-matching conditions, the fundamental amplitude can be partially depleted and its phase changed: (37) where the nonlinear phase shift is given by φ NL . 6 This phenomenon mimics many (but not all) χ (3) effects, for example n2 in ∆n = n 2 I. The anticipated values of an effective n2 nonlinearity are listed in the table below for selected materials. 8 5x10 -13 NPP 84 2x10 -10 DAST 600 6x10 -9 Note however that achieving such large effects requires that the material be phase-matchable, not yet the case for DAST!

Lawrence, M. U. Kang, W. I. Stegeman, G. Baker, J. Meth and S. Etemad, "Large Purely Refractive Nonlinear Index of Single Crystal P-Toluene Sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm", Electron. , 30:447-8 (1994) 44. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. I. H. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of DANS waveguides at 1319 nm”, Appl. Phys. , 63, 290-2 (1993). 45. H. Kanbara, H. Kobayashi, K. Kubodera, T. Kurihara and T. Kaino, “Optical Kerr Shutter Using Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials in Capillary Waveguides”, IEEE Phot.

7. We can relate these quantities by choosing ω1 = -ω 2 with ω 2 = ω e to be the perturbing field frequency (or excitation field) in Eq. 23 and convert to an integral from 0 to ∞ to give (26) which with the definitions of Eqs. 24 and 25 leads to (27) Although the calculation as illustrated above gives the nondegenerate NLR for a specific pair of frequencies, in most cases we set ω= ωe (after the integral is performed) and consider self-refraction. This gives two times the degenerate nonlinear refractive index n2 (the factor of two difference from weak-wave retardation).

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