By E. de Boer, W. Connor, H. Davis, J.J. Eggermont, R. Galambos, C.D. Geisler, G.M. Gerken, H.E. von Gierke, C.S. Hallpike, E.Jr. Hawkins, S.A. Hillyard, W.D. Keidel, D.E. Parker, T.W. Picton, W. Rudmose, F.B. Simmons, G. Stange, C.R. Steele, J. Tonndorf, M.
after heated and infrequently sour debates, SIEBENMANN'S opinion ultimately prevailed, i. e. , a contribution to cochlear lesions as a result of vibrations of the ground transmitted through bone conduction couldn't be verified. For something, it was once not easy to determine how considerable quantities of power may possibly achieve the ears during this demeanour, contemplating the attenuation that's guaranteed to happen throughout all of the many joints alongside the pathway concerned. In a few older audiological surveys carried out in (e. g. , TEMKIN, 1933), teams of workmen have been came upon who displayed indicators of apical-turn lesions, i. e. , low-tone listening to losses for air and for bone. Such lesions couldn't be anticipated to effects from publicity to air-borne sounds as a result low-frequency attenu ation of the center ear. even supposing WITTMAACK'S clarification, which used to be usually invoked in such stories, does not seem tenable, such apical-turn lesions may well conceivably be because of bone conduction parts of high-intensity noise within the feel of BEKESY (1948). - so far as i'm conscious of, no more moderen stories were performed during this challenge quarter, and the older experiments and/or surveys have been performed now and then prior to sign parameters may be accurately managed or measured. an in depth, serious evaluation of the older stories at the strength contribution of bone-conducted power to commercial listening to loss and its underlying pathology could be present in Werner (1940) who, incidently, favourite SIEBENMANN'S element of VIew.
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The general problem of deafness in the population. Laryngoscope (St. Louis) 50, 856-905 (1940). : A new audiometer. laryng. ) 35, 411-422 (1947). : Loudness recruitment. Trans. Amer. oto!. Soc. 53, 85-93 (1965). : On the semeiological value of the loudness discomfort leve!. Int. Audio!. 8, 164-171 (1969). DE BRU'iNE-ALTES, J. : The symptom of regression in different kinds of deafness. Doctoral Thesis Groningen. Groningen: WoltE'rs 1946. , DIX, M. , HALLl'IKE, C. , HOOD, J. : A recent clinico-pathological study of cochlear nerve degeneration resulting from tumor pressure and disseminated sclerosis, with particular reference to the finding of normal threshold sensitivity for pure tones.
Amer. 9, 11 (19:37). STENGER, H. : Otologische Befunde bei Kleinhirnbriickenwinkeltumoren. Arch. -, n. -Heilk. 169, 285-287 (1956). STEPHENS, S. D. , ANDERSON, C. M. : Experimental studies on the uncomfortable loudness level. J. Speech Res. 14,262-270 (1971). STEVENS, S. : Hearing: its psychology and physiology. New York: Wiley 1938. Chapter 2 Bone Conduction J. TONNDOR]" New York N. Y. (USA) With 28 Figures Contents I. Introduction . . . . . II. Components of Bone Conduction Responses A. Inner Ear Component .
Despite of continuing efforts, a consensus of opinion was not reached. By the second half of the 19th century, two schools of thought had emerged which were held to be mutually exclusive by the majority of writers. One school maintained that energy was transmitted to the receptors exclusively via the bones of the skull; this mode became known as the osseous route of bone conduction. The other school held that vibrations of the skull set up relative displacements of the auditory ossicles, which would then be conducted via the air conduction pathway.