By Charles River Editors
*Includes old debts describing Assur and the Assyrians
*Includes a bibliography for additional reading
*Includes a desk of contents
“All who listen the scoop of your destruction clap their palms for pleasure. Did nobody get away your never-ending cruelty?” - Nahum 3:19
In northern Iraq, at the banks of the Tigris River, lie the ruins of the traditional urban of Aššur. This was once the 1st capital and an important non secular heart of the Assyrian Empire. beneath the canopy of sand and soil are virtually six meters of dense stratigraphic layers that display the passage of millennia. recognized this day as Qal’at Sherqat, and in addition as Kilah Shregat, town dates again to the third millennium BCE. In that point interval, the Assyrian military turned the biggest but noticeable, and their warriors have been either the best and harshest within the land. They conquered an empire from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea; they despoiled the nice urban of Babylon, and so they enslaved the tribes of Israel. Even the pharaoh of Egypt paid them tribute. No military had ever carried struggle so far.
Indeed, Aššur used to be the center of 1 of antiquity’s so much notorious battle machines. whilst students examine the historical past of the traditional close to East, a number of wars that had super brutal results (at least via smooth criteria) frequently stand out. pressured removing of whole populations, sieges that decimated complete towns, and wanton destruction of estate have been all strategies utilized by a few of the peoples of the traditional close to East opposed to one another, however the Assyrians have been the 1st humans to make struggle a technology. whilst the Assyrians are pointed out, pictures of struggle and brutality are one of the first that spring to mind, although their tradition prospered for almost 2,000 years.
Like a few old participants and empires in that area, the unfavorable conception of old Assyrian tradition was once handed down via Biblical money owed, and whatever the accuracy of the Bible’s depiction of yes occasions, the Assyrians essentially performed the function of adversary for the Israelites. certainly, Assyria (Biblical Shinar) and the Assyrian humans performed an enormous position in lots of books of the previous testomony and are first pointed out within the publication of Genesis: “And the start of his nation used to be Babel and Erech, and Akkad, and Calneh, within the land of Shinar. Out of that land went forth Ashur and equipped Nineveh and the town Rehoboth and Kallah.” (Gen. 10:10-11).
Although the Biblical bills of the Assyrians are one of the finest and are frequently corroborated with different historic resources, the Assyrians have been even more than simply the enemies of the Israelites and brutal thugs. A old survey of old Assyrian tradition finds that even supposing they have been the perfect warriors in their time, they have been additionally very good retailers, diplomats, and hugely literate those that recorded their background and spiritual rituals and beliefs in nice element. The Assyrians, like their different buddies in Mesopotamia, have been literate and constructed their very own dialect of the Akkadian language that they used to jot down tens of millions of files within the cuneiform script (Kuhrt 2010, 1:84).
Although conflict performed this sort of crucial function in Assyrian society, they have been additionally energetic and wealthy investors, and exchange used to be an important a part of Aššur’s progress from its earliest phases. surprisingly, even in the course of army campaigns, retailers from town engaged in advertisement interactions with the “enemy,” for instance with the Aramaeans in the course of the campaigns of Adad Nirari II. instead of different towns in Mesopotamia, Aššur’s situation intended that it was once particularly subjected to the impacts of its many associates in southern Mesopotamia; Anatolia, Syria, the Zagros Mountains, or even from the barbarian tribes north of the Caucasus Mountains. Their presence could be visible this day within the structure and artifacts of the ruined urban.
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Extra resources for Assur: The History and Legacy of the Ancient Assyrian Empire’s Capital City
Introduction A relief depicting Ashurnasipal with official Aššur “All who hear the news of your destruction clap their hands for joy. ” - Nahum 3:19 In northern Iraq, on the banks of the Tigris River, lie the ruins of the ancient city of Aššur. This was the first capital and the most important religious center of the Assyrian Empire. Underneath the cover of sand and soil are almost six meters of dense stratigraphic layers that reveal the passage of millennia. Known today as Qal’at Sherqat, and also as Kilah Shregat, the city dates back to the 3rd millennium BCE.
2 Kings 18:9-11). This relief depicts the king of Israel, Jehu, bowing before the Assyrian king, Shalmaneser III, during the 9th century.
107] The strategic location of the city meant that the Assyrian rulers could monitor the traffic and trade that moved along the Tigris River Valley. By the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, grave goods recovered from burial tombs at the Old Palace site indicate the complexity and scale of the trading network Aššur was part of. By the 14th century BCE, the connections forged by this trade had resulted in a remarkable fusion of cultures in the city, with artistic and architectural elements from Egypt, Anatolia, Southern Mesopotamia, Syria, and the northern Mediterranean all found in the city.