By Robert Verhoogt
Artworks have continuously been reproduced: no longer unavoidably cleverly, now not inevitably cleanly, and sometimes with a watch towards profit. these excited about this significant point of the paintings global have frequently paid recognition to how those reproductions have helped to shape the reputations of artists and their works, whereas the reproductions themselves stay really unexamined.In the 19th century new image recommendations, the criminal improvement of copyright, and the increase of the artwork industry and paintings publishing ended in a large distribution of published reproductions to the final public. artwork in copy examines the cultural which means of creative copy in a refreshingly new context via its attention of ways 3 nineteenth-century artists—Ary Scheffer, Jozef Isra?ls, and Lawrence Alma-Tadema—managed the replica in their personal paintings. In addition to cautious awareness to the standard in their published proofs, those artists shared a burgeoning curiosity in copyright strategy and a prepared curiosity in profit—writing the following bankruptcy during this altering creative tradition of replication, authenticity, and commodity.
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Extra info for Art in Reproduction: Nineteenth-Century Prints after Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Jozef Israels and Ary Scheffer
By their very nature, manual reproductive techniques such as engraving, lithography or etching, entail a personal interpretation by the printmaker. This is not so self-evident in photographic techniques, where the image is secured in the printing matrix, not by the flesh-and-blood hand of the printmaker but by an ingenious process of exposing this matrix to light. This gain in precision was pinx it et sculpsit Hoofdstuk_1 . indd 21 • 51 13-04-2007 11:34:09 offset by the loss of personal interpretation.
Thus the criterion lies not in the technique but in the way in which this is used. Basil Gray expressed this acutely in his 1937 work, The English Print: c ‘We have assumed that the ‘artistic’ processes, etching, engraving, mezzotint, aquatint, wood-engraving and lithography, are radically different from the ‘reproductive’ processes, collotypye, photogravure, half-tone, the line block and offset lithography. Yet all the ‘artistic’ processes have been pinx it et sculpsit Hoofdstuk_1 . indd 7 • 37 13-04-2007 11:34:05 used for reproductive purposes; why should the ‘reproductive’ processes not be used for original design?
30 Hoofdstuk_0 . indd 30 • a rt in r eproduct ion 13-04-2007 11:31:49 chapter 1 Pinxit et Sculpsit The culture of the copy In 1759 the writer Edward Young (1683-1765) declared in his Conjectures on Original Composition: c ‘The mind of a man of Genius is a fertile and pleasant field, pleasant as Elysium, and fertile as a Temple; it enjoys a perpetual Spring. Of that Spring, Originals are the fairest Flowers: Imitations are of quicker growth, but fainter bloom. ’1 Over the centuries some works of art have left long traces of their existence in diverse copies: Greek bronzes were imitated by the Romans in marble, while two-dimensional images were copied in paintings, drawings and, once the printing press had been invented, through graphic techniques.