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By Marc Picard

This textbook is designed to fill uncomplicated wishes. One is for a transparent and simple presentation of the rudiments of articulatory phonetics that is geared in particular to the necessities of the (future) language instructor, and never solely to the coed of linguistics, and within which the elemental suggestions and terminology are brought through English instead of quite a few languages. an excellent higher want, might be, and one who has long past unfulfilled for too lengthy, is for an easy yet kind of entire evaluation of the phonetic stock of North American French.

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5 Consonants which have in common the fact that they are produced nei­ ther with the burst or plosion resulting from the sudden release of trapped air, like stops and nasals, nor with the audible friction characteristic of fricatives and affricates are known collectively as APPROXIMANTS. These types of sounds can be heard at the beginning of words like lore/ roar/war/yore. The first of these, namely /1/, is illustrated in Figure 10 where it can be seen that there is a stricture of complete closure at the alveolar ridge which is reminiscent of that found in Figure 8 for /t/ and /d/, and in Figure 9 for /n/.

G. word-initially, syllable-finally, intervocalically, etc. Other types of consonants, including nasals, do not exhibit such a phonological contrast; only under very special conditions can Table 7. English consonants: nasals Symbol Spelling Voicing Place Manner /m/ /n/ /η/ m, mm, mb n, nn ng voiced voiced voiced bilabial alveolar velar nasal nasal nasal ENGLISH PHONETICS 23 they be voiceless. In this regard, then, the nasals /m n η/ are much more similar to the voiced stops /b d g/ than to their voiceless counterparts /p t k/.

A chest pulse which is produced with a relatively greater mus­ cular action results in a syllable which is relatively more prominent than the others. In other words, pushing more air out of the lungs produces a rein­ forced chest pulse or stressed syllable. Such a reinforced chest pulse or extra respiratory energy can increase the intensity (loudness), frequency (pitch) and/or duration (length) of a syl­ lable. Although different stress-timed languages (such as English) seem to vary greatly in the way they combine and emphasize each of these ele­ ments, our only concern at this juncture is the fact that each individual word in any such language will contain one syllable that stands out from all the others.

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