By Janet Holmes.
Contents Preface to Fourth variation Preface to 3rd variation Preface to moment version Preface to First version Author's Acknowledgements Publisher's Acknowledgements 1. What do sociolinguists research? what's a sociolinguist? Why can we say a similar factor in several methods? What are the various methods we are saying issues? Social elements, dimensions and factors part I: Multilingual Speech groups 2. Language selection in multilingual groups determining your sort or code Diglossia Code-switching or code-mixing three. Language upkeep and shift Language shift in several groups Language dying and language loss components contributing to language shift How can a minority language be maintained? Language revival four. Linguistic forms and multilingual countries Vernacular languages average languages Lingua francas Pidgins and creoles five. nationwide languages and language making plans nationwide and reliable languages making plans for a countrywide legit language constructing a typical style in Norway The linguist's position in language making plans part II: Language edition: specialise in clients 6. neighborhood and social dialects nearby edition Social version Social dialects 7. Gender and age Gender-exclusive speech ameliorations: non-Western groups Gender-preferential speech positive factors: social dialect examine Gender and social category factors of women's linguistic behaviour Age-graded positive factors of speech Age and social dialect facts Age grading and language switch eight. Ethnicity and social networks Ethnicity Social networks nine. Language switch edition and alter How do adjustments unfold? How will we examine language swap? purposes for language switch part III: Language version: specialise in makes use of 10. sort, context and check in Addressee as a power on sort lodging idea Context, type and sophistication variety in non-Western societies sign in eleven. Speech capabilities, politeness and cross-cultural conversation The services of speech Politeness and handle types Linguistic politeness in several cultures 12. Gender, politeness and stereotypes Women's language and self assurance interplay Gossip The linguistic building of gender The linguistic building of sexuality Sexist language thirteen. Language, cognition and tradition Language and notion Whorf Linguistic different types and tradition Discourse styles and tradition Language, social category, and cognition 14. Analysing Discourse Pragmatics and politeness thought Ethnography of talking Interactional sociolinguistics dialog research (CA) serious Discourse research (CDA) 15. Attitudes and purposes Attitudes to language Sociolinguistics and schooling Sociolinguistics and forensic linguistics sixteen. end Sociolinguistic competence Dimensions of sociolinguistic research Sociolinguistic universals References Appendix: phonetic symbols word list Index
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Extra info for An introduction to sociolinguistics
Mm? (Switch between Spanish and English) In (a), Tamati uses a Maori tag at the beginning of his utterance while the Mandarin speaker in (b) uses a final tag. This kind of switching is sometimes called emblematic switching or tag switching. The switch is simply an interjection or a linguistic tag in the other language which serves as an ethnic identity marker. The exchange in (c), for instance, occurred between two Mexican Americans or Chicanos in the USA. By using the Spanish tag, M signalled to A that she recognised the relevance of their shared ethnic background to their future relationship.
For a friendly chat, people generally use colloquial language. In Hemnesberget, Bokmål was the language of school and government offices. Ranamål was the language of the home. The written language of notices is often very formal and impersonal, as example 5 illustrates. Often degrees of formality are strongly influenced by solidarity and status relationships. But not always. A very formal setting, such as a law court, typically influences language choice regardless of the personal relationships between the speakers.
Vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, styles, dialects, languages) 2. g. features relating to participants, setting or function of the interaction). Then we can begin to look for patterns which will help to formulate an explanation of why people use one set of forms in some contexts, but different forms in others. When the two sociolinguists Blom and Gumperz visited Hemnesberget what did they ask? ’ In other words, the sociolinguist’s aim is to move towards a theory which provides a motivated account of the way language is used in a community, and of the choices people make when they use language.