Download A Mathematical Space Odyssey: Solid Geometry in the 21st by Claudi Alsina, Roger Nelsen PDF

By Claudi Alsina, Roger Nelsen

Stable geometry is the normal identify for what we name at the present time the geometry of three-d Euclidean house. This ebook provides thoughts for proving quite a few geometric ends up in 3 dimensions. certain realization is given to prisms, pyramids, platonic solids, cones, cylinders and spheres, in addition to many new and classical effects. A bankruptcy is dedicated to every of the subsequent simple options for exploring area and proving theorems: enumeration, illustration, dissection, airplane sections, intersection, new release, movement, projection, and folding and unfolding. The ebook contains a choice of demanding situations for every bankruptcy with options, references and an entire index. The textual content is aimed toward secondary tuition and faculty and college lecturers as an advent to good geometry, as a complement in challenge fixing periods, as enrichment fabric in a direction on proofs and mathematical reasoning, or in a arithmetic direction for liberal arts scholars.

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Now find the maximum number of parts into which space can be divided by n spheres. 12. , kiss) a unit circle. 5. 5. 6. Challenges 43 The kissing number problem in space asks for the maximum number of unit spheres that can kiss a unit sphere. Show that the kissing number in space is at least 12. 13. 4) are 1, 5, 14, 30, 55, 91, 140, 204, . . , and the tetrahedral numbers are 1, 4, 10, 20, 35, 56, 84, 120, . . Note that 4 1 D 4, 4 5 D 20, 4 14 D 56, 4 30 D 120, etc. Formulate a theorem and prove it.

To solve the puzzle, let n3 and k 2 denote respectively the number of cubes in the monument and the plaza, with n3 D k 2 . 2. 6. 16; 64/, etc. 9; 27/. So 1458 cubes are required, 729 for the monument and an equal number for the plaza. 2 The inclusion principle and the AM-GM inequality for three numbers One method to show that an inequality holds between two quantities is to use the inclusion principle: if one solid is a subset of another, then the volume of the first is less than or equal to the volume of the second.

14 CHAPTER 1. 7. 8, are familiar to all of us. These are the three regular tilings—identical copies of a single regular polygon, joined edge-to-edge. 8. Missing from the collection of regular tilings is one by regular pentagons. Regular pentagons have interior angles of 108ı , so that neither 3 times 108ı nor 4 times 108ı equals 360ı . So it is somewhat surprising that exactly twelve regular pentagons enclose a Platonic solid, the regular dodecahedron. 9 (photo by Paul Garland). 2. 9. Scores of these objects, which date to the 2nd to 4th centuries BCE, have been found throughout Europe.

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