By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reviews ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar stories the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse beneficial properties of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological positive aspects, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our realizing of the advance of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in ancient and areal point of view.
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In a single of the main thorough reports ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar studies the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse positive factors of Cupe? o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe? o indicates many strange typological gains, together with break up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our figuring out of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan relatives of languages in ancient and areal standpoint.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Initial consonant clusters with the “foreign” sound r in loanwords such as traapu ‘cloth’, from Spanish trapo, and kriitu ‘streetcar’, possibly from English streetcar). While root-initial glottal stops are not written in the practical orthography in word-initial position, they are written, and are easily perceived, following a vowel-final prefix as in (36b), or in CV- reduplication of vowel-initial words as in (37b). 1. Sounds and spelling (36) a. amu ‘will hunt’ b. pe’amu ‘3 S hunted’ (37) a. awelve ‘grown’ b.
For instance, we encounter seqepichim ‘mushrooms’ from seqepish and si’ichim ‘tules’ from si’ish. However, some of the forms above, such as met’icham ‘many’, are attested hundreds of times in the corpus and consistently show a instead of expected i. The regular pattern, that of a appearing when the final vowel of the stem has been deleted and i appearing when it has not, can be seen in words with the augmentative suffix sequence -we-t and immediate-future and purposive -qat. As pointed out above, etymological evidence suggests that the vowels in these suffixes are part of the input.
Second, this epenthetic vowel does not appear before suffixes with -CV shapes like -lya’a-sh ‘instrument for’, -ve ‘realis subordinator’, -pi ‘irrealis subordinator’, -nin ‘causative’, or -chu ‘inchoative’, as seen in the following forms. (66) a. b. c. d. e. puylya’ash ‘table’ puyve ‘the one who dined’ pempuypi ‘them to dine’ puynin ‘feed someone’ puychu ‘become full after dining’ Comparing the forms in (65) with those in (66), it appears that the epenthetic vowels in (65) appear in order to avoid a super-heavy syllable with the coda structure *CC#.